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Espinoza v. Adventures

United States District Court, D. Colorado

September 26, 2014



MARCIA S. KRIEGER, Chief District Judge.

THIS MATTER comes before the Court on the Defendant's Motion for Summary Judgment (# 17), the Plaintiff's Response (# 22), and the Defendant's Reply (# 26).


Sue Ann Apolinar died on a white water rafting trip conducted by Defendant Arkansas Valley Adventures ("AVA"). This action is brought by Ms. Apolinar's son, Jesus Espinoza, who asserts three claims related to his mother's death: (1) negligent, careless, and imprudent operation of a raft resulting in wrongful death; (2) negligence and negligence per se; and (3) fraud and misrepresentation.

AVA moves for summary judgment on all three claims. It seeks to dismiss any "survivorship" claim premised on C.R.S. § 13-20-101 for lack of capacity. In addition, it seeks judgment in its favor on all of Plaintiff's claims based on its affirmative defense that Ms. Apolinar released AVA from liability and assumed all risks prior to the rafting trip. The Court exercises jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 1332. The issues are governed by Colorado law.


Based upon the evidence submitted by the parties, which the Court construes most favorably to the Plaintiff, the material facts are summarized below. Where appropriate, the Court provides further explication explication in conjunction with its analysis.

Mr. Espinoza is Ms. Apolinar's son. There is no evidence of record that an estate was created following Ms. Apolinar's death or whether Mr. Espinoza acts in a fiduciary capacity for such estate.

AVA is a river outfitter licensed under C.R.S. § 33-32-104. It offers a number of river rafting trips of varying levels of difficulty. Among the trips it offers is "24 Hours in Brown's Canyon, " which Ms. Apolinar booked based on her review of AVA's website. She made reservations for herself, her significant other, her god-daughter, and Mr. Espinoza because "it looked like fun and was appropriate for [the group's] level of experience."

Before beginning the rafting trip, AVA required its participants to review and execute a document entitled "Rafting Warning, Assumption of Risk, and Release of Liability & Indemnification Agreement" ("Agreement"). Ms. Apolinar signed the Agreement for herself and for her minor son, Mr. Espinoza, on June 7, 2011 before beginning the trip.

On the second day of the trip, the raft carrying Ms. Apolinar capsized while navigating a rapid known as "Seidel's Suck Hole." Ms. Apolinar was ejected from the raft. An AVA guide pulled her back into the raft, but it capsized and ejected Ms. Apolinar, again. Ms. Apolinar was swept into a logjam, became entangled with the collection of tree logs and branches, and tragically drowned.


Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure facilitates the entry of a judgment only if no trial is necessary. See White v. York Intern. Corp., 45 F.3d 357, 360 (10th Cir. 1995). Summary adjudication is authorized when there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and a party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(a). Substantive law governs what facts are material and what issues must be determined. It also specifies the elements that must be proved for a given claim or defense, sets the standard of proof, and identifies the party with the burden of proof. See Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986); Kaiser-Francis Oil Co. v. Producer's Gas Co., 870 F.2d 563, 565 (10th Cir. 1989). A factual dispute is "genuine" and summary judgment is precluded if the evidence presented in support of and opposition to the motion is so contradictory that, if presented at trial, a judgment could enter for either party. See Anderson, 477 U.S. at 248. When considering a summary judgment motion, a court views all evidence in the light most favorable to the non-moving party, thereby favoring the right to a trial. See Garrett v. Hewlett Packard Co., 305 F.3d 1210, 1213 (10th Cir. 2002).

If the movant has the burden of proof on a claim or defense, the movant must establish every element of its claim or defense by sufficient, competent evidence. See Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c)(1)(A). Once the moving party has met its burden, to avoid summary judgment the responding party must present sufficient, competent, contradictory evidence to establish a genuine factual dispute. See Bacchus Indus., Inc. v. Arvin Indus., Inc., 939 F.2d 887, 891 (10th Cir. 1991); Perry v. Woodward, 199 F.3d 1126, 1131 (10th Cir. 1999). If there is a genuine dispute as to a material fact, a trial is required. If there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact, no trial is required. The court then applies the law to the undisputed facts and enters judgment.


AVA's motion raises a straight forward issue - are Ms. Espinoza's claims barred by the exculpatory and release provisions of the Agreement executed by Ms. Apolinar. However, before addressing that question, AVA asks that the Court ...

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