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PICKHARDT v. MERRITT.

decided: December 2, 1889.

PICKHARDT
v.
MERRITT.



ERROR TO THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK.

Author: Blatchford

[ 132 U.S. Page 252]

 MR. JUSTICE BLATCHFORD delivered the opinion of the court.

This is an action at law, brought in the Circuit Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York, by

[ 132 U.S. Page 253]

     Wilhelm Pickhardt and Adolf Kuttroff against Edwin A. Merritt, collector of the port of New York, to recover duties paid under protest on importations into that port from Hamburg, the entries having been made at the custom-house in January and February, 1879. There were proper protests and appeals to the Secretary of the Treasury, and decisions by that officer. The goods were dyes or colors called naphthylamine red, orange II, orange IV and resorcine red J. At the trial, before Judge Wheeler and a jury, there was a verdict for the defendant, and a judgment in his favor for costs, to review which the plaintiffs have brought a writ of error.

The collector assessed a duty upon the articles in question of fifty cents per pound and thirty-five per cent ad valorem, under that provision of schedule M of section 2504 of the Revised Statutes, 2d ed. p. 479, which reads as follows: "Paints and dyes -- aniline dyes and colors, by whatever name known: fifty cents per pound, and thirty-five per centum ad valorem." The plaintiffs claimed, in their protest, that the articles were not aniline dyes, and were liable to a duty of only twenty per cent ad valorem, under section 2516 of the Revised Statutes, which provides that "there shall be levied, collected and paid on the importation of all raw or unmanufactured articles, not herein enumerated or provided for, a duty of ten per centum ad valorem; and on all articles manufactured in whole or in part, not herein enumerated or provided for, a duty of twenty per centum ad valorem."

The course of legislation on the subject of duties on aniline dyes has been as follows: By section 11 of the act of June 30, 1864, c. 171, 13 Stat. 212, the following duty was imposed: "On aniline dyes, one dollar per pound and thirty-five per centum ad valorem." By section 21 of the act of July 14, 1870, c. 255, 16 Stat. 264, the following duty was imposed: "On aniline dyes and colors, by whatever name known, fifty cents per pound, and thirty-five per centum ad valorem;" and by section 22 of the same act, p. 266, picric acid, which appears to be not chemically an aniline dye, but a phenol dye, though obtained from coal-tar, was made from of duty. The provision of the act of 1870, in regard to aniline dyes and colors, was

[ 132 U.S. Page 254]

     carried into the Revised Statutes, enacted in 1874, as was also the provision in regard to picric acid.

The question sought to be raised by the plaintiffs in the present case could not arise under the Revised Statutes as amended by the act of March 3, 1883, c. 121, because, under title 33, ยง 2502, schedule A, as enacted by the act of March 3, 1883, 22 Stat. 493, the following duty is imposed: "All coal-tar colors or dyes, by whatever name known, and not specially enumerated or provided for in this act, thirty-five per centum ad valorem;" and picric acid was not included by name in the list of articles made free of duty by section 2503 as enacted by the act of March 3, 1883.The articles in question, which, it is claimed, were not aniline dyes or colors, are admitted to be "coal-tar colors or dyes."

The plaintiffs claimed on the trial, and claim here, that the words "aniline dyes and colors, by whatever name known," are words of description, and not words used in a general commercial sense. They therefore introduced a good deal of evidence for the purpose of showing that the articles in question were, physically and chemically, not aniline dyes or colors, though derived from coal-tar. It was shown that none of those articles were known in commerce at the time the Revised Statutes were enacted, resorcine red J having been known first in 1875, orange II and IV in 1877, and naphthylamine red in 1878. On the other hand, the defendant introduced testimony for the purpose of showing that the articles in question were known in trade, when imported, as "aniline dyes," and that in 1874 the term "aniline dyes" had been applied in trade to all dyes derived from coal-tar, or artificial dyes.

The testimony on the part of the plaintiffs tended to show that the articles in question were not chemically aniline colors; that naphthylamine red and orange II and IV were azo colors; that resorcine red J was an eosine color; that picric acid was a phenol color; that aniline colors had high tinctorial power, as compared with natural colors, while the tinctorial power of azo colors was no higher than that of natural colors; that ...


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